Sample Type / Medical Specialty: Orthopedic
Sample Name: Knee Arthroplasty - Revision
Description: Revision right total knee arthroplasty. Right failed total knee arthroplasty.
(Medical Transcription Sample Report)
PREOPERATIVE DIAGNOSIS: Right failed total knee arthroplasty.
POSTOPERATIVE DIAGNOSIS: Right failed total knee arthroplasty.
PROCEDURE PERFORMED: Revision right total knee arthroplasty.
FIRST ANESTHESIA: Spinal.
ESTIMATED BLOOD LOSS: Approximately 75 cc.
COMPONENTS: A Zimmer NexGen Legacy knee size D right stemmed femoral component was used. A NexGen femoral component with a distal femoral augmented block, size 5 mm. A NexGen tibial component, size 3 mm was used. A size 14 mm constrained polyethylene surface was used as well. Original patellar component that the patient had was maintained.
BRIEF HISTORY: The patient is a 68-year-old female with a history of knee pain for 13 years. She had previous total knee arthroplasty and revision at an outside facility. She had continued pain, snapping, malalignment, difficulty with ambulation, and giving away and wished to undergo additional revision surgery.
PROCEDURE: The patient was taken to the operative suite and placed on the operating table. Department of Anesthesia administered the spinal anesthetic. Once adequately anesthetized, the patient was placed in a supine position. Care was ensured and she was adequately secured and well padded in position. Once this was obtained, the right lower extremity was prepped and draped in the usual sterile fashion. Tourniquet was inflated to approximately 325 mmHg on the right thigh. At this point, an incision was made over her anterior previous knee scar taking this down to the subcutaneous tissue of the overlying retinaculum. A medial parapatellar arthrotomy was then made by using a second knife and this was taken both distally and proximally to allow us to sublux the patella on the lateral aspect to allow exposure to the joint surface. There was noted to be no evidence of purulence or gross clinical appearance of infection, however, intraoperative cultures were taken to asses this as well. At this point, the previous articular surface was then removed using an osteotome until this was left free and then removed. This was done without difficulty. Attention was then directed removing the femoral component. Osteotome was taken around each of the edges until this was gently lifted up and then a femoral extractor was placed around it and this was back flapped until this was easily removed. After this was performed, attention was then directed to the tibial component. An osteotome was again inserted around the surface and this was easily pried loose. There was noted to be minimal difficulty with this and did not appear to have adequate cement fixation. This was evaluated. The bone stalk appeared to be adequate, however, there were noted to be some deficits where we need to trim cement, so we elected to proceed with stemmed component. The attention was first directed to the femur and the femoral canal was opened up and superficially reamed up to a size 18 mm proximal portion for the Zimmer stemmed component. At this point, the distal femoral cut was evaluated with a intramedullary guide and this was noted to be cut in a varus cut leaving us a large deficit of the medial femoral cut. We elected because of this large amount of retic to take off the medial condyle to correct this varus cut to a six degree valgus cut. We elected to augment the medial aspect and take only 5 mm off of the lateral condyle instead of a full 10 to 12. At this point, the distal femoral cutting guide based on the intramedullary head was then placed. Care was ensured that this was aligned in proper rotation with the external epicondylar axis. Once this was pinned in position, approximately a six degree valgus cut was then made. This allowed a portion of the medial condyle to be removed distally. The anterior cut was checked next using the intramedullary guide. The anterior surface cutting block was then placed. This aligned us to anterior cutting block.
At this time, while preparing the canals, the tourniquet was deflated due to it being 123 minutes. Approximately 10 minutes did get by, as the knee was copiously irrigated and suctioned dried. The tourniquet was then reinflated. The canals were prepped for cementing. They were suction-dried and cleaned. The tibial component was cemented and then impacted into position and ensured it was adequately aligned in proper external rotation and alignment that was previously tried with the trial. Once this was fixed and secured, all extra cement was removed and attention was directed to the femoral component. The stemmed femoral component was then impacted in position and cemented. Again care was ensured that it was in adequate position and proper rotation. A size 14 mm poly was then inserted in between to provide compression. This was then taken through extension and held until cement cured. This was then removed and the components were evaluated. All excess cement was removed and they were well fixed. Size 14 mm trial Poly was then placed and this was taken through range of motion. This was found to have excellent range of motion and good stability. It was elected at this time that we would go with the size 14 mm Poly. This gave us extra Poly for ware and then provide excellent contact throughout the range of motion. The final articular surface was then placed and tightened into position to allow to _______ secured. The knee was then reduced and the knee was taken through range of motion. The patella was tracking with no-touch technique and adequately positioned. At this point, the tourniquet was deflated for second time and then the knee was copiously irrigated and suctioned dry. All bleeding was cauterized using a Bovie cautery. The retinaculum was then repaired using #1 Ethibond in a figure-of-eight fashion. This was reinforced with a running #2-0 Vicryl. The knee was then flexed and noted that the patella was tracking with good alignment. The wound was again copiously irrigated and suctioned dry. A drain was placed prior to retinaculum repair deep to this to provide adequate drainage. At this point, the subcutaneous tissue was closed with #2-0 Vicryl. Skin was approximated with skin clips. Sterile dressing of Adaptic, 4x4, Webril, and ABDs were then placed. A large Dupre dressing was then placed up the entire lower extremity. The patient was then transferred back to recovery in supine position.
DISPOSITION: The patient tolerated the procedure well with no complications and transferred to PACU in satisfactory condition.
Keywords: orthopedic, knee arthroplasty, revision, zimmer nexgen, distal femoral, intramedullary guide, femoral component, femoral, knee, arthroplasty, intramedullary, patellar, medial, tibial,